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The integration of digital technologies into educational practices has become a transformative force, reshaping traditional approaches to teaching and learning across various disciplines. This study focuses on the intersection of digital technologies and the teaching and learning of Nigerian history in schools within Lagos State. As the educational landscape continues to evolve globally, it is essential to explore the impact of digital tools and resources on history education, particularly in the context of a diverse and culturally rich nation like Nigeria.

This research aims to investigate the current state of digital technology adoption in the teaching of Nigerian history, examining the extent to which educators leverage digital resources to enhance pedagogical strategies. Through a mixed-methods approach, including surveys, interviews, and classroom observations, the study seeks to identify the types of digital technologies used, the challenges faced by educators, and the perceived benefits of integrating these tools into history instruction.

The study also considers the perspectives of students, assessing their engagement levels, preferences, and perceived learning outcomes when exposed to digitalized history lessons. Additionally, attention will be given to the availability of technological infrastructure, teacher training programs, and existing policies that shape the incorporation of digital technologies in history classrooms.

The findings of this research aim to contribute valuable insights into the current landscape of digital technology utilization in the teaching and learning of Nigerian history in Lagos State schools. The implications of this study extend to educational policymakers, curriculum developers, teachers, and other stakeholders, providing guidance on how to harness the potential of digital technologies to enrich the historical learning experience and promote a deeper understanding of Nigeria’s rich cultural heritage among students.

Chapter One:


1.1 Background of the Study

Digital technologies have become integral components of modern education, revolutionizing the way information is accessed, shared, and communicated. In the Nigerian educational context, the integration of digital technologies into teaching and learning is an evolving landscape with vast potential. One subject area where this potential is of particular significance is the teaching and learning of Nigerian history in schools, especially within the dynamic educational environment of Lagos State.

Nigerian history is rich and diverse, encompassing a tapestry of cultures, events, and individuals that have shaped the nation. As technology advances, educators face the challenge and opportunity to leverage digital tools to enhance the teaching and learning experiences in history classrooms. Lagos State, being a hub of cultural and historical significance, provides a unique context to explore the impact and potential challenges associated with the integration of digital technologies in the teaching and learning of Nigerian history.

In the dynamic landscape of education, the integration of digital technologies has emerged as a catalyst for transformative pedagogical practices. The realm of history education, a discipline that holds the key to understanding a nation’s past, culture, and identity, is undergoing a paradigm shift with the infusion of digital tools. This study delves into the intersection of digital technologies and the teaching and learning of Nigerian history within the educational milieu of Lagos State.

Nigeria, a nation with a rich tapestry of cultures, histories, and traditions, stands at the crossroads of technological advancement and educational evolution. Lagos State, as a vibrant hub of academic activities, serves as a microcosm reflecting the broader trends in educational practices across the country. As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, educators are grappling with the challenge of harnessing digital technologies to enhance the pedagogical landscape, ensuring that history education remains relevant, engaging, and effective.

The twenty-first century has witnessed an unprecedented surge in technological innovations, and education is no exception to this transformative wave. Digital technologies offer a myriad of tools and resources that can potentially revolutionize the teaching and learning of history. In the Nigerian context, where history serves as a cornerstone for understanding the complexities of cultural heritage, political evolution, and societal development, the infusion of digital elements into history classrooms becomes a compelling area of exploration.

The rationale behind this research lies in the recognition that the effective incorporation of digital technologies into history education can yield substantial benefits. It not only has the potential to make historical narratives more accessible and engaging but also aligns with broader educational goals of fostering critical thinking, digital literacy, and cultural awareness among students. Understanding the current state of digital technology integration in the teaching and learning of Nigerian history in Lagos State schools is pivotal for informed decision-making by educators, policymakers, and curriculum developers.

Globally, teaching-learning process is no longer taking place within the four walls of a classroom as a result of breakout of the pandemic known as COVID-19, leading to digital learning in which Nigeria is no exception. Today’s students are called “digital-age learners” (Collier, Burkholder & Branum, n.d), expressing their technological know-how and learning independence. Beyond traditional school structures and practices, these digital-age students have access to resources and expertise. Hence, the importance of digitization in education cannot be overstated, since it opens up new areas of learning in this new normal. However, there is virtually nothing in people’s life that does not include some type of digitization, as evidenced by the COVID-19 epidemic, which demonstrated that more can be done online. As a result, the significance of digital education has never been greater than it is now. In this age of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), there is a growing concern about how ICT resources like the computer, scanner, intranet, internet, e-mail, videophone systems, teleconferencing devices, wireless application protocols (WAP), radio and micro waves, and so on can be presented online to students in both their immediate locations (classroom model of elearning) and at various geographical distances (Nwana, 2012). Zoom meetings, for instance, have been swiftly embraced by other industries and the possibilities for remote work are ever – growing and the prospect for future is intriguing in terms of what is conceivable. The education industry has not been left behind in terms of innovation over the last decade, and there has been a lot of digital learning that is likely to continue. Nigeria’s educational system requires significant digitalisation to increase abilities and strengthen students’ cognitive domain.

According to McNulty (2021), curricula that are delivered in digitalized environment improve learning and innovation skills, information, media and technology skills, and life and career skills. Whereas, curricula taught in non-digitized contexts cover cognitive skills such as critical thinking, problem solving and creativity, because it is possible to teach and learn these skills without having access to digital tools and environments. As a result, digitisation of education provides a chance for learners to establish a cognitive resource-based mechanism and enhance their abilities, as well as to engage in lifetime learning and continuous education (Abdullahi & Tijani, 2019). In today’s digitalized environment, modern instructional materials are critical and desirable. Technology is used in modern schooling to impart knowledge. Education becomes a collaborative and self-driven business in which instructors, students, and other stakeholders are involved as a result of digitalisation, which provides information that may be transmitted in a variety of ways (for instance, teacher-directed, joint teacherand-learner-directed, and learner-directed). 

 However, for a start, this paper proposes that the concepts of education and digitalisation of education must be examined from the point of view of applicability and functionality to make it meaningful and achieve the purpose of education in technological age. The main question that the paper then addresses is the importance and/or benefits of digitalisation of education in Nigerian secondary schools so that its challenges can be ameliorated.

The Concept of Education in Perspective 

In context, education is the most important tool for empowering individuals in every community, and basic education is the basis

for lifelong learning and human growth (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2013). Education is as essential to existence as oxygen is to life (Lawal, Akinyemi, & Gbenu, 2021), and it is also one of the most significant components of human assets since it provides knowledge and skills that enable individuals to be responsible and selfsufficient. The process of assisting learning, or the acquisition of information, skills, values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal growth, is known as education. 

 Secondary education in Nigeria, the subject of this research, is organized around curriculum goals and objectives, and learning is primarily supervised by instructors. Secondary education lasts six years and is divided into two phases of three years each, according to the Federal Republic of Nigeria’s National Policy on Education (2013). Junior Secondary education completes the fundamental education program that began in elementary school and lays the groundwork for lifetime learning and growth. Senior Secondary education provides school graduates (products) with the opportunity for higher quality education by offering more subjects or skill-oriented instruction; equipping students to live effectively in this modern age of science and technology; and inspiring students with the desire for achievement and self-improvement both at school and later in life. From the aforementioned definitions, which introduce students to the current age of science and technology, digital learning employs new tools and methods to assist students in learning in new ways. This new kind of teaching is quickly displacing more

traditional face-to-face instruction, i.e. chalkand-talk method. 

 However, incorporating digital learning into the classroom may be as easy as using tablets or iPads instead of traditional notebooks and paper. Teachers may employ digital technology to provide compelling learning opportunities in the areas they teach, which might take the form of hybrid or entirely online courses and programs. A combination of technological teaching and digital content is required for digital learning. Incorporating digital learning into the classroom can range from utilizing tablets instead of paper to employing complex software and equipment instead of a basic pen. In today’s environment, digital learning is becoming increasingly common. As a result, the Nigerian educational system must modernize the traditional chalkand-board learning method in order to make teaching mobile, interactive, engaging, and motivational for students to take an interest in and retain digital learning. Nigerian education would not progress toward cutting-edge innovation unless secondary schools are digitalized.  

 According to United Nations Children’s Fund (2022), every child, regardless of where they live or their circumstances, has the right to a good education. The education system in Nigeria has not kept up with the country’s fast rising school-age population. Basic education which precedes secondary education in the country is of inadequate quality, resulting in low demand and unacceptable academic achievement (United States Agency for International Development, USAID, 2021). Up to 10 million of the country’s 30 million primary school-aged children are anticipated to be enrolled in fully recognized schools. Less than a third of primary school students will go on to junior high school, and even fewer will go on to senior secondary school. While education metrics are bad across the board, the northern states have the worst (USAID, 2021), and this could be due to non-digitalized system of education in all states of the country. Through the new Learning Passport, 12 million Nigerian students would have greater access to education. Digital technologies are being used to change how children learn, even in distant areas and during catastrophes (UNCF, 2022).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite the rapid growth of digital technologies globally, there exists a gap in understanding how these tools are utilized in the teaching and learning of Nigerian history, particularly in the schools of Lagos State. The effectiveness of traditional teaching methods in conveying the richness of Nigerian history is being questioned in the face of a technologically advanced world. This study seeks to address this gap by investigating the current state of digital technology integration in the teaching and learning of Nigerian history in Lagos State schools.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The primary purpose of this research is to explore the role and impact of digital technologies in the teaching and learning of Nigerian history in Lagos State schools. Specifically, the study aims to:

Examine the current state of digital technology integration in history classrooms.

Investigate the perceptions of educators and students regarding the use of digital technologies in learning history.

Identify challenges and opportunities associated with the integration of digital technologies.

Propose recommendations for enhancing the effective integration of digital technologies in the teaching and learning of Nigerian history.

1.4 Research Questions

To achieve the stated objectives, this study will seek answers to the following research questions:

What is the current level of integration of digital technologies in the teaching of Nigerian history in Lagos State schools?

What are the perceptions of educators regarding the use of digital technologies in teaching Nigerian history?

How do students perceive the impact of digital technologies on their learning experiences in Nigerian history classes?

What challenges and opportunities are associated with the integration of digital technologies in the teaching and learning of Nigerian history?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study holds significance at various levels:

Educational Policy: The findings can inform educational policies related to the integration of digital technologies in history education.

Curriculum Development: Insights from the study can contribute to the development of curriculum materials that incorporate digital tools for teaching Nigerian history.

Professional Development: Educators can benefit from understanding the potential of digital technologies and receive targeted professional development.

Student Engagement: Understanding student perceptions can guide educators in creating engaging and effective learning experiences.

1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study will focus specifically on public and private secondary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria. The research will cover educators and students involved in the teaching and learning of Nigerian history. While the study recognizes the broader context of digital technologies in education, the emphasis is on their application in the history curriculum.


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