WHATSAPP US ON  08137701720




Background to the Study   

The country, Nigeria like many other third world countries is a country in a hurry as regards technological and scientific development. Nigeria is striving to project within a short period of time the scientific and technological struggles which took the developed countries centuries of civil strife, trials and errors to realize. Transfer of technology over logged expression in recent times had been identified as one of the tools par excellence for achieving these highly commendable objectives. However, foundational to this technological transfer is chemistry education which could only be possible through the provision of a formal education. It is equally deployed as a vital strategy for fighting ignorance. Incidentally, the National Policy on Education indicates that Nigeria has accepted education as an instrument par excellence for national development (FRN, 2004).

Education is a preparation of life. This is related to the acquisition of skills to earn a living. Education today as always is ever changing and increasing in scope. Our schools are confronted with new pressures arising from changing needs of students, societal expectation, economic changes and technological advancement. None the less if any education program is to be formulated and efforts for continued improvement are to be made it is very necessary to develop some conceptions which include the goal that are being aimed at, these educational objectives therefore become a criteria by which materials are selected, content is outlined, instructional procedures are developed and human resources are also considered. Mbuk (2012) explains that education consists of two components which are  classified into inputs and outputs.

Inputs according to him consist of human and material resources while outputs are the goals and outcome of the educational process. If one wants to study and assess the educational system for improvement of its performance, effects of one component on the other must be examined. Instructional materials which are educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum.  Instructional materials befits the teacher as they make instruction easier and the learners as they make the learning objectives clearer Iyunade (2014). Instructional materials if effectively used are capable of captivating students’ interest, stimulating desires in learning and make them participate in the lesson Chong (2016).     It was pointed out that the use of instructional materials would assist in making discovered facts stick firmly to the memory of students.

Savoury (1999) also suggested that a well planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lesson would help much to removed the lack of interest and depression of students, supplements inadequacy of books and also arouse the interest of students as this will give them something practical to see and touch as well as helping to train them to reason out things for themselves.

School environment which is regarded as an instructional material has been described as an organization where materials are produced, managed and organized in such a way that enables the students to acquire desirable learning outcome. It also includes the physical and aesthetic surroundings and the safety security climate and culture of the school. The process of managing and organizing materials in teaching which occurs in a school environment brings about fruitful learning since it stimulates the senses of the student and also motivates them. Ojokuku (2012) defines Chemistry as a branch of natural science that deals with the composition and nature of substances and the changes they undergo as a consequence of changes in the constitution of their molecules Chemistry is given a core status and made a compulsory subject for all science students due to its relevance in enabling citizens acquire skills, knowledge with which they will use to explore their environment so as to have a comfortable and fulfilled life.

The Federal Ministry of Education (2007) of Nigeria through the Senior Secondary Education curriculum stipulated that the objectives of Chemistry education among other are to develop interest in the subject of chemistry, acquire basic theoretical/practical knowledge and skills in chemistry; apply skills to meet societal needs of creating employment and wealth; and adequately prepare for further studies in chemistry. Despite the laudable objectives of teaching Chemistry in senior secondary education in Nigeria, students perform woefully in internal and external examinations as evidenced in May/June Chief Examiners’ report of West African Examination Council (WAEC, 2013).  To acquire the skills and knowledge according to the Nigerian Policy on Education (2004) which is in line with the objectives of teaching?

The Impact of Instructional Materials and Effective Teaching of Chemistry in Secondary School

Chemistry in senior secondary schools in Nigeria, the use of instructional materials becomes necessary and needed tool which cannot be over emphasized. This implies that for effective achievement of chemistry objectives teachers must employ instructional materials in Chemistry in instruction at all times.

There are varieties of instructional materials for chemistry education which include burettes, pipettes, beakers Bunsen burners flasks (volumetric, flat bottomed, round bottomed) etc. These materials should be provided in good quality and large quantity in the classroom for effective teaching and learning process. Ogaga, Igori and Egbodo (2016) in an empirical survey revealed that essential facilities such as computers, chemicals, specimen, Bunsen burners, models and chart are not available in schools for the process of teaching and learning. With the introduction of the modern equipment in schools, the teaching and learning process of chemistry is facilitated and the students are motivated.

The inadequacy of instructional materials, lack of laboratory space and human resources have been of serious concern to the educators. The decline in the performance of students in Science Technology and Mathematics (STM) is associated with poor learning environment created by this unavailability of instructional facilities. Chong (2016) emphasized that the availability and adequacy of these facilities promotes effective teaching and learning activities in schools while their inadequacy affects the academic performance negatively. Chemistry problem has been searched by many scholars in many ways and this has led a majority of them to try and find solutions to the factors militating against the performance of students in chemistry education. These long standing problems or factors causing poor performance in chemistry education as discovered by the scholars which are inherent  in the development of student poor attitude towards the subject include lack of good teaching or instructional materials, lack of experienced and qualified teachers for chemistry, inability of the teachers to handle and use the instructional materials where available. Several efforts have been extended by science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) to train secondary school teachers on improvisation techniques where the materials are not there in various science subjects with chemistry inclusive, hence the need to evaluate the extent teachers have been able to use or improvise instructional materials for effective teaching by surveying the impact of the use of instructional materials in learning of chemistry on students academic achievement, by surveying also the extent to which the Ministry of Education has recruited and trained qualified and seasoned teachers for the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools apart from the provision of materials.

Statement of the problem

The desire to carry out this research was due to the problem of poor examination performance by the senior secondary schools chemistry students in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. This poor examination performance has been recorded for some years by the State Education Management Board and even the parents. It was observed that some concepts in secondary school chemistry curriculum are difficult for students to learn.

There is no doubt that students performance can be substantially improved through the application of simple practice and the use of instructional materials in chemistry education.

The relevance of education in any society cannot be understated. Education is regarded as the single important factor that brings about improvement of the individual as well as the society. The need to provide basic formal education to all schools whether public or private sector is a paramount social responsibility hence due to its cross cutting implication on the economy and productivity of the nation education is regarded as a multi-sectorial issue in Nigeria.

In this regard teachers, technician, and students play vital roles in education for technological development. Teachers on their part must develop essential skills to help them use suitable and appropriate instructional materials/methods for teaching various concepts in each subject area. For the teaching of chemistry the effectiveness and appropriateness of instructional materials is a major issue of concern to many people. The quality of instructors, teachers and equipment in chemistry are usually considered sub-standard and this contributes to the poor teaching of chemistry education.

The Impact of Instructional Materials and Effective Teaching of Chemistry in Secondary School

Research has shown that poor perception of the product of instructional materials, low level of utilization of the materials, nonchalant attitude of teachers towards improvisation of the material and use, poor funding, lack of equipment laboratories are the major factors militating against the performance of chemistry students. Due to the problem of poor examination performance by the chemistry students in external examinations of WASSCE, NECO and JAMB over the years there is the desire to carry out this research to determine the impact of the use of instructional materials for learning of chemistry on students’ academic achievement in secondary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. This is so because, it is believed that students performance can be substantially improved through the application of simple practice and the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning situation.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the research was to carry out a survey of the secondary schools with intent to determine the impact of the use of instructional materials in teaching chemistry.

Specifically the research sought to;

assess the availability of instructional materials in the secondary schools.

assess the extent of the teachers’ insight into the approaches (use of the materials) for the teaching of chemistry

determine the extent of students show of interest in chemistry lessons using instructional materials.

Recommend ways of improving the attitude of teachers towards the use of these materials for effective teaching and learning.   

Significance of the Study

There is no doubting the fact that findings from the study will have significance implications for the work of policy makers in education particularly those in the senior secondary schools as well as the school administrators and practicing teachers. The learners and their parents may not be left out as either they belong to the group of people living with little chemistry knowledge or none at all to assist in technological advancement of the country, the outcome of the study will be of interest even to the Federal Ministry of Education. In specific terms however, findings from the study will contribute to widening of horizon of knowledge about the impact of the use of instructional materials in teaching chemistry in secondary schools.

Teachers will understand why students perceive a particular method useful to spur up their interest. Apart from the subject itself and the method of presentation, it will sensitize the teachers on the attitude of students and their performance when instructional materials are used.

Parents will also see the need to provide their wards with the necessary instructional materials (textbooks), to discourage natural hatred on the subject. Also the provision of instructional materials will help in the learning of chemistry to promote scientific literacy as contain in the National Policy on Education (2004). The development of this scientific knowledge will inculcate in the students the acquisition in the learning of chemistry of appropriate skill for livelihood.

Findings from the study will be useful to educational planners and school heads to appreciate the relevance and provides instructional materials in teaching-learning not only in chemistry but in all other subject areas.

Evidence from the study will commend to the education department the need to build the capacity of teachers through in-service training on methods and the use of instructional materials to present chemistry education.


This study will also help in finding ways of encouraging the present and future students in chemistry education in order to have meaningful relationship between the originators, coordinators and supervisors of chemistry education. Above all, the result of the study will make meaningful discussion regarding impact of the use of instructional resources and materials in teaching and learning of chemistry education and learning conditions of the students. The study when completed shall add to the existing literature and shall facilitate future research in this area.

Scope of the Study

The scope of the study covers the impact of the use of instructional materials for learning of chemistry on students’ academic achievement in the senior secondary schools. The study is confined to selected secondary schools in Nsit Ibom local government area of Akwa Ibom State. Specially the following areas will be covered; concept of instructional materials, types, importance, fundamental theories guiding the selection, utilization of teachers perceptions about the provision of instructional materials and importance of improvisation, it will as well cover the instructional strategies employ in the teaching of chemistry.    


The null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught chemistry concepts using instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.

Research Questions

            The following research questions guided the study:

What are the instructional materials available for teaching chemistry in the senior secondary schools?

To what extent teachers utilize the available instructional materials for teaching chemistry in the senior secondary schools?

What are the factors inhibiting the provision of instructional materials for teaching chemistry in the senior secondary school?

What are the factors inhibiting effective utilization of instructional materials by teachers for teaching chemistry in the senior secondary schools?

To what extent do instructional materials have influence on the teaching and learning of chemistry?


After paying the appropriate amount (#5,000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) after we receive bank alert



Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.



Account Number: 3139283609



08068231953 or 08168759420


By admin

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *