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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF REPORTED CASES OF CRIME (A CASAE STUDY OF RAPE IN RIVERS STATE)
A study is presented of the reported cases of child rape in Port Harcourt, the capital of Rivers State in Nigeria. The conditions that make children, particularly females, more vulnerable to sexual abuse are explored. The organization of family life places children in a dependency cycle that makes rape both inevitable and invisible. Change that is responsive to family needs is more likely to have a positive effect in preventing child rape. Crime is an economically important activity which according to Becker (1968) is almost totally neglected by economist. This neglect makes economics of crime a relatively new filed for economic investigation that has been aided by the fact that in the last four decades, there has been an outstanding increase in criminal activities as some reports and studies have conferred in Nigeria (CLEEN, 2006: Motor, 2009 among others).
Factors affecting crime and determinants is closely related to poverty, social exclusion, income inequality, cultural and family background, religion, unemployment, education, age, gender, race, urbanization and a host of other economic and socio-demographic factors that influence the mind and behaviour of the individual in making decision (Buonanno and montolio, 2008: Gumus 2004; Motor, 2009; and Rustepeli and Ond, 2006). As such, criminal activities are not restricted to economic systems or to leadership styles. In addition, crimes are also not peculiar to level of economic growth and development. The study examined the cases and incidence of raping reported amongst middle age and young adult in Port Harcourt, Rivers states. Rape can be defined in various ways but in most jurisdiction, it is defined as sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration by one person (the accused) with or against another person (the victim) without the consent of the victim. A total of 100 respondents were systematically selected for this study and with the use of simple descriptive technique analysed. The outcome revealed that there are incidences of rape within the society which many said is criminal. There are strong indications that socio-cultural factors are part of the contributing factors. It recommended among other thing that perpetrators should be punished and victims should be well supported.
1.1 THE BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Crime is an economically important activity which according to Becker (1968) is almost totally neglected by economist. This neglect makes economics of crime a relatively new filed for economic investigation that has been aided by the fact that in the last four decades, there has been an outstanding increase in criminal activities as some reports and studies have conferred in Nigeria (CLEEN, 2006: Motor, 2009 among others).
Factors affecting crime and determinants is closely related to poverty, social exclusion, income inequality, cultural and family background, religion, unemployment, education, age, gender, race, urbanization and a host of other economic and socio-demographic factors that influence the mind and behaviour of the individual in making decision (Buonanno and montolio, 2008: Gumus 2004; Motor, 2009; and Rustepeli and Ond, 2006). As such, criminal activities are not restricted to economic systems or to leadership styles. In addition, crimes are also not peculiar to level of economic growth and development. This is not to say however, that criminal activities are similar or same across countries. In Nigeria society, there are “the weaks” as well as “the strong” The physical social political and economically weak” and vice versa. As is the case in human nature, one group wants to feed and grow on the other. As a result this, there are social ills such as crimes these may include thuggery, armed robbery, airson, murder, rape, burglary, assault and other various forms of crimes all over the place.
People find it difficult to obey the law, hence traffic rules are fragrantly disobeyed, leading to high accident rates, which results in lost of lives and properties. The afore-discussed, underscored the need for a body responsible for the protection and enforcement of law and order in the land.
Iwarimie – Jaja (2000-28) has defined crime in a legal sense as an intentional act or omission in violation of prescribed defense or justification and prescribed by the state Antonomy as a felony, Misdemeanor or simple offense.
Other victims of the armed robbers and assassinations included Dr. Obi Wali, Kudirate Abiola, Alfred Rewane, Madam Esther Tejuosho, Toyin Onagunruwa etc. Ekpenyoung (999:25) agree with his when he writes: New to the scene and Rivers State violence in Nigeria is the rising tide of assassination, which have left the citizens in fear. These brutal Killings cut across every stratum of the society. An exhaustive list of the case of assassination in the past five years would be difficult, it not impossible to prepare since most of them go Unreported in the dailies.
These criminals and assassins carrying out their nefariour deeds in gangs against innocent people and they are frequently hired to kill and inflict injuries and to commit other types of criminal acts. This appears to have declared war on the nation and have succeeded in instilling anxiety fear, insecurity and helplessness on the Rivers State population. According Mohamed Akran delivered on July 8.1999:13at a National Seminar on Sharia and the problem of indiscipline in Niger quoting a Paris-based interpol’s international criminal statistics said that: In 1987 about 19, 153 cases of aggravated robberies were reported. The number fumbed to 150, 187 in 1990. By this same year about 216 criminals were killed. As at today, the number of criminals killed has sky rocked beyond human Understanding National Concord Newspaper, September 8, 1999. Statistics on rape and other sexual assaults are commonly available in advanced countries and are becoming more common throughout the world. Inconsistent definitions of rape, different rates of reporting, recording, prosecution and conviction for rape create controversial statistical disparities, and lead to accusations that many rape statistics are unreliable or misleading. According to USA Today reporter Kevin Johnson “no other major category of crime – not murder, assault or robbery – has generated a more serious challenge of the credibility of national crime statistics” than rape.
A United Nations statistical report compiled from government sources showed that more than 250,000 cases of rape or attempted rape were recorded by police annually. The reported data covered 65 countries. In some jurisdictions, male-female rape is the only form of rape counted in the statistics. The attitude of the police in many countries often discourages victims from reporting rape: one study in Turkey found that 33% of police officers agreed with the assertion that “some women deserve rape” and 66% agreed that “the physical appearance and behaviors of women tempt men to rape.”
In many parts of the world, rape is very rarely reported, due to the extreme social stigma cast on women who have been raped, or the fear of being disowned by their families, or subjected to violence, including honor killings. Furthermore, in countries where adultery and/or premarital sex are illegal, victims of rape can face prosecution under these laws, if there is not sufficient evidence to prove a rape in the court. Even if they can prove their rape case, evidence during investigation may surface showing that they were not virgins at the time of the rape, which, if they are unmarried, opens the door for prosecution. Countries may or may not criminalize marital rape and in many countries which do criminalize it prosecutions for it are exceptionally rare. Due to prevailing social views, sexual activity in marriage is in many parts of the world considered an absolute right of the husband that can be taken with or without the consent of his wife. The very act of a woman refusing to have sex with her husband may be considered unthinkable: in one survey, 74% of women in Mali said that a husband is justified to beat his wife if she refuses to have sex with him. There are also significant differences in regard to the enforcement of rape laws in practice in different jurisdictions; although de jure a rape law may be applicable to any victim; de facto the enforcement of the law often excludes certain victims, such as prostitutes, women who were not virgins at the time of the rape, or other women with a ‘bad reputation’.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
As state earlier, the statistical analysis of factors affecting crimes. These factors are treated as explanatory variable in the specification of the model. Factors that affects crime is income variable. There exists several ways of capturing the income variables in economics of crime. These problem are so serious that the police finds it difficult to do their duties, more so, that it is longer news to hear that the police social agitations, etc. in this country. Almost everyday, our media house report increase in the rate of violent crime e.g robbery, car-Snatvls nbot as if the police lack the ability, the print is that there is extremely poor and inadequate, communication process and network couple with statistical performance.
It takes two or more days for information of a crime incident to circulate within an ordinary division, not to mention Rivers State or the country as a whole. It is apparent the equipment such as radio sets, telephone in all station, Walkier-talkie and vehicles, just to mention a few, are in short supply. Vehicles in terms if carrying personnel from one point to another, carrying message from one division to another, for anti-crime patrol, etc aimed at checking the crime rate.
The statistical communications problem does not rest on internal and crime performance only. The link between the police and the public is just not effective. There is no adequate information no what the police is just not effective. There is not adequate information on what the police are doing. Thus, inturn affect their image. This has reached to Rivers State whereby the Nigeria police finds it difficult to relate crime will with the public. They are not considered credible by the public. Lack of training and discriminatory attitudes
Others factors that contribute significantly to the high level of impunity for state actors are the lack of training of the police and the absence of an independent police complaints mechanism to investigate allegations against the police. Rpar
The police force lacks training and expertise to prevent and to respond effectively to violence against women. The problem is compounded by attitudes towards women prevalent among male police officers. A woman who has been raped may be confronted by inferences that she was in some way responsible, for example, by questions and comments about her presence at the place where the rape occurred or about her manner of dressing. Such attitudes, coupled with the social stigma attached to rape, dissuade women from reporting the crime.
A woman high court judge told Amnesty International on condition on anonymity: “the police who are taking the report are often displaying discriminatory and dismissive attitudes towards the victim. They would challenge the rape victim by saying that she must have done something to the man and that she must have attracted him.” The state has a duty to ensure that violence against women is reported, recorded, investigated and prosecuted. The attitudes among male police officers, however, prohibit an effective response.
1. Lack of effective investigation and prosecution
According to The Public Officers Protection Act (CAP 379), a federal statute, section 1 ‘any action, prosecution, or other proceedings for any act, neglect or default against any public official pursued under law or while on public duty’must be initiated within three months after the alleged misconduct.(50) This act imposes limits on the period of time in which complaints can be made and this very short span of time would appear to limit the possibility of prosecution of public officials. Should traumatized victims not summon the courage to bring a civil suit or to complain to the police within three months, the possibilities of filing formal complaints against police or other state actors who may have committed rape are significantly restricted.
2. Lack of effective, independent police review body
Reluctance to report a rape by a police officer to a colleague of the alleged perpetrator is an important factor in the under-reporting of rape. Corruption within the Nigerian Police Force is widely acknowledged. Colleagues or relatives of the alleged perpetrator have in some cases employed threats or bribes in an attempt to secure withdrawal of the complaint.
Some allegations of rape are reviewed within existing internal police review systems and may result in internal disciplinary measures. Complaints are normally referred to either the Police Complaints Bureau or the “Orderly Room Trial” mechanism. In addition, a Police Service Commission was established by law in 2001. Current procedures, however, lack independence and are ineffective.
The public can report misconduct by the police to the Police Complaints Bureau, an internal investigation unit established in 2003, which is reported to have an office in each police station. In addition, so-called “human rights desks” were reported to have been established in some police stations in Port harcourt in June 2006 as part of a pilot project. There appears, however, to be little practical evidence of the work of the Police Complaints Bureau or the “human rights desks”. According to human rights defenders, where they exist, such mechanisms lack adequate resources and are inefficient.
The “Orderly Trial Room” is an internal police review mechanism – where complaints against police officers are examined by their peers. The panel established to review the complaint has a mandate to recommend disciplinary action, including dismissal, suspension and demotion, when referring the case to the Police Service Commission for decision. The orderly trial room panel lacks independence and impartiality: there is, for example, no mechanism to preclude participation of close colleagues of the alleged perpetrator. Amnesty International is aware of only one case where this mechanism has been used in a case of rape: that of two girls who were raped in Enugu, where two junior officers were dismissed from the police force and a senior officer suspended. Criminal proceedings were also brought. (This case is described above.)
The Police Service Commission is responsible for the appointment, promotion, discipline and dismissal of police officers below the grade of Inspector General of Police. It consists of a retired Justice of the Supreme Court or Court of Appeal, a retired police officer not below the rank of Commissioner of Police, and four members of civil society. Its mandate includes investigation of misconduct, separate from and parallel to criminal investigation. It cannot, however, refer cases to the courts for prosecution. Human rights organizations are concerned that, in practice, the Police Service Commission lacks both the political will and adequate resources to implement its mandate: complaints are reported to be referred back to the police for further investigation. It does not, therefore, provide an adequate independent mechanism to investigate allegations of rape by police officers. This led to a situation whereby Akhagbicha, G. (1886) in its “police and the society” Committed thus; a…but when a policeman refuses to show mercy and understand on the society that shelters, cloth and feed him, the society, then se the every language or means to condemn him, hence the general contempt for police in our society” still the mean of the force seem not to understand not like themselves. All these out together, weight down the overall statistical analysis of crime factors affecting in Rivers State? And to what extend does this phenomenon affect police in crime detection and prevention?.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The purpose of this is to identify the various statistical analysis of factors affecting crime in Rivers State and its possible set backs and how it rendered Nigeria police to determined crimes of its principal functions or duties of crime prevention and detection ineffective, taking Rivers State police Command Port Harcourt as a study post. It is also intended to find out how and to what extend statistical analysis is crime management performance has assisted the Nigeria police in Rivers State in bringing the Crime wave of the State to the workable solution or method of detecting and preventing crime in this country as a whole by the entire Nigeria police force in Rivers State.
1. To evaluate incidence of crime of raping in Rivers state.
2. To know the factors affecting statistical Analysis performance on the overall performance of the crime detection.
3. To assess the consequences of police present level of factors, on their acceptability by the members of the public.
4. To know the negative influence of the present level of police performance on detection of crime of rape in Rivers state.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study intends to address the following question;
(1) What are the factors affecting statistical Analysis performance on the overall performance of the crime detection?
(2) What are the consequences of police present level of factors, on their acceptability by the members of the public?
(3) What negative influence does the present level of police performance on detection of crime of rape in Rivers state.
.1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
It is the intention of the research to verify the following hypothesis.
H01: That a greater percentage of the factors affecting statistical management positions in the
H02: That lack of sufficient equipment apart from Communities equipment negatively affect the attitude of policemen detecting Crime.
H0: There is no significant relation between negative influence of the present level of police performance and detection of crime of rape in Rivers state.
H1: There is a significant relation between negative influence of the present level of police performance and detection of crime of rape in Rivers state.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE STUDY
The significance of this study lies on fact that: finding of this research will serve as feedback to statistical Analysis factors affecting crime in Rivers State both at federal. This study will also provided need information which as a reference, will assist both crime and government in policy formation.
The social factors used in the analysis are education and deterreve or clearance rate. Education and deterreve do not significance explain total crime and property crime.
Moreover, the study will serve as a source of information for researchers and the reading public as a whole may find need to know about the crime and how. Factors affecting the performance has adverse effects on managing their resources and it will enable them to appreciate the difficulties faced by them- the crime.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is centered on statistical analysis of reported cases of crime (a cases study of rape in Rivers state)
.1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Despite the limited scope of this study certain constraints were encountered during the research of this project. Some of the constraints experienced by the researcher were given below:
i. TIME: This was a major constraint on the researcher during the period of the work. Considering the limited time given for this study, there was not much time to give this research the needed attention.
ii. FINANCE: Owing to the financial difficulty prevalent in the country and it’s resultant prices of commodities, transportation fares, research materials etc. The researcher did not find it easy meeting all his financial obligations.
iii. INFORMATION CONSTRAINTS: Nigerian researchers have never had it easy when it comes to obtaining necessary information relevant to their area of study from private business organization and even government agencies. The newsmen in Rivers state find it difficult to reveal their internal operations. The primary information was collected through face-to-face interview getting the published materials on this topic meant going from one library to other which was not easy.
Although these problems placed limitations on the study, but it did not prevent the researcher from carrying out a detailed and comprehensive research work on the subject matter.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Crime: The concept of “Crime” is very relative, crime is a term widely used by law-persons to identify such act as embezzlement, forced sex, murder and robbery. However, in the concise Oxford Dictionary, Crime is referred to as acts punishable by Law” as a Major societal problem, many scholars have attempted its definition. Haralambo views crime as those activities that break the law of the Land and are subject to official punishment haralambo, 1980”406. Along this line of thought, Pail suggests that behaviour can only be considered a crime if it is contrary to any formal laws of society (Pail 1977:328) cited in Jwarimie Jaja (2000), Thus, in societies where there is existence of laws against such behaviour as prostitution, homosexuals, alcoholism, stealing, embezzlement, suicide, homicide and arson, person whose behaviour go contrary to the rules of law are most likely to prosecuted, and if found guilty, they are convicted for a period stipulated by such law, cited Jwarimie Jaja (200).
Rape: This is the criminal, forcible sexual intercourse without the consent of the individual.
Young men: These are male gender that fall under the age of 40 years which is early middle age or adulthood. Prevalence and types of rape: Recently, UNICEF commented that rape occur more on women and children in African conflict zones. It was no longer perpetrated by combatants but also by civilians. According to WHO (1997), rape is common in countries affected by wars and natural disasters, drawing a link between the occurrence of sexual violence with the significant uprooting of a society and the crumbling of the social norms.
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